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This is a short list of peer-reviewed journal articles and books about psi phenomena. It includes articles of historical interest, general overviews, critical reviews, and descriptions of psi applications. These articles appeared in specialty journals as well as top-tier outlets, including Nature, Science, The Lancet, Proceedings of the IEEE, Psychological Bulletin, Foundations of Physics, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience,  and Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

A comprehensive review would run into the thousands of articles, so this list is necessarily highly selected. I will add more as time allows. Be sure to note the links at the bottom of this page; those websites contain many more articles. If you find broken or incorrect links, or you don't see an article that you think should be added here, please let me know.

The international professional organization for scientists and scholars interested in psi phenomena is the Parapsychological Association, an elected affiliate of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the largest mainstream scientific organization in the world. Anyone who claims that parapsychology is a pseudoscience doesn't know what they're talking about.

Can psi phenomena be repeated in controlled laboratory tests? Yes. Here's a good article that summarizes the state of the art as of 2018: Cardeña (2018). The experimental evidence for parapsychological phenomena: A review. American Psychologistpdf

This page was originally created by Dean Radin in 2015.  Latest update: July 2021.

Distant healing 

Astin et al (2000). The efficacy of “distant healing”: A systematic review of randomized trials. Annals of Internal Medicine. pdf

Leibovici (2001). Effects of remote, retroactive intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients with bloodstream infection: Randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journalpdf

Krucoff et al (2001). Integrative noetic therapies as adjuncts to percutaneous intervention during unstable coronary syndromes: Monitoring and Actualization of Noetic Training (MANTRA) feasibility pilot. American Heart Journalpdf

Radin et al (2004). Possible effects of healing intention on cell cultures and truly random events.. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. pdf

Krucoff et al (2005). Music, imagery, touch, and prayer as adjuncts to interventional cardiac care: the Monitoring and Actualisation of Noetic Trainings (MANTRA) II randomised study. The Lancetpdf

Benson et al (2006).  Study of the therapeutic effects of intercessory prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients. American Heart Journalpdf

Masters & Spielmans (2007). Prayer and health: Review, meta-analysis, and research agenda. Journal of Behavioral Medicinepdf

Schwartz & Dossey (2010). Nonlocality, intention, and observer effects in healing studies. Laying a foundation for the future Explorepdf

Schwartz et al (2015). Infrared spectra alteration in water proximate to the palms of therapeutic practitioners.  Explorepdf

Schlitz et al (2012). Distant healing of surgical wounds: An exploratory study. Explorepdf

Distant physiological correlations

Duane & Behrendt (1965). Extrasensory electroencephalographic induction between identical twins. Sciencepdf

Grinberg-Zylberbaum et al (1994). The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the brain: The transferred potential. Physics Essayspdf

Wiseman & Schlitz (1997). Experimenter effects and the remote detection of staring. Journal of Parapsychologypdf

Standish et al (2003). Evidence of correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging signals between distant human brains. Alternative Therapiespdf

Wackermann et al (2003). Correlations between brain electrical activities of two spatially separated human subjects. Neuroscience Letterspdf

Schmidt et al (2004). Distant intentionality and the feeling of being stared at: Two meta-analyses. British Journal of Psychologypdf

Radin (2004).  Event related EEG correlations between isolated human subjects. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicinepdf

Standish et al (2004). Electroencephalographic evidence of correlated event-related signals between the brains of spatially and sensory isolated human subjects. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. pdf

Richards et al (2005). Replicable functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of correlated brain signals between physically and sensory isolated subjects. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicinepdf

Achterberg et al (2005). Evidence for correlations between distant intentionality and brain function in recipients: A functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicinepdf

Radin (2005). The sense of being stared at: A preliminary meta-analysis. Journal of Consciousness Studiespdf

Radin & Schlitz (2005). Gut feelings, intuition, and emotions: An exploratory study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine pdf

Schlitz et al (2006). Of two minds: Skeptic-proponent collaboration within parapsychology. British Journal of Psychology. pdf

Radin et al (2008).  Compassionate intention as a therapeutic intervention by partners of  cancer patients: Effects of distant intention on the patients’ autonomic nervous system. Explorepdf

Moulton & Kosslyn (2008). Using neuroimaging to resolve the psi debate. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. pdf

Ambach (2008). Correlations between the EEGs of two spatially separated subjects − a replication study. European Journal of Parapsychologypdf

Hinterberger (2010). Searching for neuronal markers of psi: A summary of three studies measuring electrophysiology in distant participants. pdf

Schmidt (2012). Can we help just by good intentions? A meta-analysis of experiments on distant intention effects. 

Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine pdf

Jensen & Parker (2012). Entangled in the womb? A pilot study on the possible physiological connectedness between identical twins with different embryonic backgrounds. Explorepdf

Parker & Jensen (2013). Further possible physiological connectedness between identical twins: The London study. Explore pdf

Remote viewing (clairvoyance), telepathy, general ESP

Remote viewing (clairvoyance)

Targ & Puthoff (1974). Information transmission under conditions of sensory shielding. Naturepdf

Puthoff & Targ (1976). A perceptual channel for information transfer over kilometer distance: Historical perspective and recent research. Proceedings of the IEEEpdf

May et al (1990). Advances in remote-viewing analysis. Journal of Parapsychology. pdf

Spottiswoode (1997). Apparent association between effect size in free response anomalous cognition experiments and local sidereal time. Journal of Scientific Explorationpdf

Telepathy and general ESP

Eisenberg & Donderi (1979). Telepathic transfer of emotional information in humans. Journal of Psychologypdf

Bem & Honorton (1994). Does psi exist? Psychological Bulletin. pdf

Hyman (1994). Anomaly or artifact? Comments on Bem and Honorton. Psychological Bulletinpdf

Bem (1994). Response to Hyman. Psychological Bulletinpdf


Milton & Wiseman (1999). Does psi exist? Lack of replication of an anomalous process of information transfer. Psychological Bulletinpdf

Sheldrake & Smart (2000). Testing a return-anticipating dog, Kane. Anthrozoöspdf

Sheldrake & Smart (2000). A dog that seems to know when his owner to coming home: Videotaped experiments and observations. Journal of Scientific Exploration. pdf

Storm & Ertel (2001). Does psi exist? Comments on Milton and Wiseman's (1999) meta-analysis of ganzfeld research. Psychological Bulletinpdf

Milton & Wiseman (2001). Does Psi Exist? Reply to Storm and Ertel (2001). Psychological Bulletin pdf

Sheldrake & Morgana (2003). Testing a language-using parrot for telepathy. Journal of Scientific Exploration. pdf

Sheldrake & Smart (2003). Videotaped experiments on telephone telepathy. Journal of Parapsychology. pdf

Sherwood & Roe (2003). A review of dream ESP studies conducted since the Maimonides dream ESP programme. Journal of Consciousness Studies pdf

Delgado-Romero & Howard (2005). Finding and correcting flawed research literatures. The Humanistic Psychologistpdf

Hastings (2007). Comment on Delgado-Romero and Howard. The Humanistic Psychologist. pdf

Radin (2007). Finding or imagining flawed research? .The Humanistic Psychologist. pdf

Storm et al (2010).  Meta-analysis of free-response studies, 1992–2008: Assessing the noise reduction model in parapsychology. Psychological Bulletin pdf

Storm et al (2010). A meta-analysis with nothing to hide: Reply to Hyman (2010). Psychological Bulletin pdf

Tressoldi (2011). Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence: the case of non-local perception, a classical and Bayesian review of evidences. Frontiers in Psychologypdf

Tressoldi et al (2011). Mental connection at distance: Useful for solving difficult tasks?  Psychologypdf

Williams (2011). Revisiting the ganzfeld ESP debate: A basic review and assessment. Journal of Scientific Exploration pdf

Rouder et al (2013). A Bayes Factor meta-analysis of recent extrasensory perception experiments: Comment on Storm,

Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010). Psychological Bulletin pdf

Storm et al (2013).  Testing the Storm et al. (2010) Meta-Analysis using Bayesian and frequentist approaches: Reply to Rouder et al. (2013). Psychological Bulletin pdf

Storm et al (2017).  On the correspondence between dream content and target material under laboratory conditions:
A meta-analysis of dream-ESP studies, 1966-2016. International Journal of Dream Research  pdf

Storm & Tressoldi (2020).  Meta-analysis of free-response studies 2009-2018: Assessing the noise-reduction model ten years on.  pdf

General reviews and applications

Overviews and commentaries

Rao & Palmer (1987). The anomaly called psi: Recent research and criticism. Behavioral and Brain Sciencespdf

Utts (1996). An assessment of the evidence for psychic functioning. Journal of Scientific Exploration pdf

Alcock (2003). Give the null hypothesis a chance. Journal of Consciousness Studies pdf

Parker & Brusewitz (2003). A compendium of the evidence for psi. European Journal of Parapsychology pdf

Jahn & Dunne (2005). The PEAR Proposition. Explorepdf

Carter (2010). Heads I lose, tails you win. Journal of the Society for Psychical Researchpdf

Schwartz (2010). Nonlocality and exceptional experiences: A study of genius, religious epiphany, and the psychic. Explorepdf

Utts (2016). Appreciating statistics. Journal of the American Statistical Associationpdf

Cardeña (2018). The experimental evidence for parapsychological phenomena: A review. American Psychologistpdf

Schwartz (2018). Nonlocal consciousness and the anthropology of religion. Explore pdf

Reber & Alcock (2019). Searching for the impossible: Parapsychology’s elusive quest. American Psychologistpdf

Rabeyron (2020). Why most research findings about psi are false: The replicability crisis, the psi paradox, and the myth of Sisyphus. Frontiers in Psychologypdf


Kolodziejzyk (2012). Greg Kolodziejzyk's 13-year associative remote viewing experiment results. Journal of Parapsychologypdf

Schwartz (2019). The location and reconstruction of a Byzantine structure in Marea, Egypt, including a comparison of electronic remote sensing and remote viewing .Journal of Scientific Explorationpdf

Schwartz and DeMattei (2020). The discovery of an American brig: Fieldwork involving applied remote viewing
Including a comparison with electronic remote sensing.  .Journal of Scientific Explorationpdf

Survival of consciousness

Braude  (1992). Survival or super-psi. Journal of Scientific Exploration   pdf


van Lommel et al (2001). Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands. The Lancet.   pdf

Braude  (2005). Personal identity and postmortem survival. Social Philosophy and Policy   pdf

van Lommel (2006). Near-death experience, consciousness, and the brain. World Futures.  pdf

Beischel & Schwartz (2007). Anomalous information reception by research mediums demonstrated using a novel triple-blind protocol. Explore. pdf

Braude  (2009). Perspectival Awareness and Postmortem Survival. Journal of Scientific Exploration   pdf

Neppe (2009). A detailed analysis of an important chess game revisiting "Marcozy versus Korchnoi" Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. pdf

Greyson (2010). Seeing dead people not known to have died: “Peak in Darien” experiences. Anthropology and Humanism pdf

Kelly (2010). Some directions for mediumship research. Journal of Scientific Explorationpdf

Kelly & Arcangel (2011). An investigation of mediums who claim to give information about deceased persons. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease pdf

Nahm et al (2011). Terminal lucidity: A review and a case collection. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics pdf

Facco & Agrillo (2012).   Near-death experiences between science and prejudice. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience pdf

Matlock (2012). Bibliography of reincarnation resources online (articles and books, all downloadable) pdf

Beischel et al. (2015). Anomalous information reception by research mediums under blinded conditions II: Replication and extension. Explore  pdf

Neppe et al. (2019). .The remarkable Besant-Leadbeater studies in quantal clairvoyance (quantal remote viewing) correlate profoundly with the Triadic Rotational Units of Equivalence Quantal models in Triadic Dimensional Vortical Paradigm. IQNJ pdf


Honorton & Ferrari (1989). “Future telling”: A meta-analysis of forced-choice precognition experiments, 1935-1987. Journal of Parapsychologypdf

Spottiswoode & May (2003). Skin conductance prestimulus response analyses, artifacts and a pilot study. Journal of Scientific Exploration pdf

Radin (2004).  Electrodermal presentiments of future emotions. Journal of Scientific Exploration pdf

McCraty et al (2004). Electrophysiological Evidence of Intuition: Part 1. The Surprising Role of the Heart. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine  pdf

McCraty et al (2004). Electrophysiological Evidence of Intuition: Part 2. A System-Wide Process? Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. pdf

Radin & Lobach (2007). Toward understanding the placebo effect: Investigating a possible retrocausal factor. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine pdf

Radin & Borges (2009). Intuition through time: What does the seer see? Explore. pdf

Bem (2011). Feeling the future: Experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology pdf

Bem et al (2011). Must psychologists change the way they analyze their data? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology   pdf

Bierman (2011). Anomalous switching of the bi-stable percept of a Necker Cube. Journal of Scientific Exploration pdf

Radin et al (2011). Electrocortical activity prior to unpredictable stimuli in meditators and non-meditators. Explore pdf

Radin (2011). Predicting the unpredictable: 75 years of experimental evidence. Explore pdf

Tressoldi et al (2011). Let your eyes predict : Prediction accuracy of pupillary responses to random alerting and neutral sounds. SAGE Open. pdf

Galek et al (2012).  Correcting the past: Failures to replicate psi.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.  pdf

Mossbridge et al (2012). Predictive physiological anticipation preceding seemingly unpredictable stimuli: a meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology. pdf

Bem et al (2014). Feeling the future: A meta-analysis of 90 experiments on the anomalous anticipation of random future events. F1000Research. pdf

Mossbridge et al (2014). Predicting the unpredictable: Critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. pdf

Schwarzkopf (2014). We should have seen this coming. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. pdf

Mossbridge et al (2015). We did see this coming. . pdf

Woody and Lynn (2018). Perspectives on precognition. Psychology of Consciousness . pdf

Mossbridge and Radin (2018). Precognition as a form of prospection: A review of the evidence. Psychology of Consciousness  pdf

Schooler et al (2018). Entertaining without endorsing: The case for the scientific investigation of anomalous cognition. Psychology of Consciousness . pdf

Houran et al (2018). Cross-examining the case for precognition: Comment on Mossbridge and Radin (2018) .Psychology of Consciousnesspdf

Schwarzkopf (2018). On the plausibility of scientific hypotheses: Commentary on Mossbridge and Radin (2018). Psychology of Consciousnesspdf

Mossbridge and Radin (2018). Plausibility, statistical interpretations, physical mechanisms and a new outlook: Response to commentaries on a precognition review. Psychology of Consciousness  pdf

Maier et al (2020). A preregistered multi-lab replication of Maier et al. (2014, Exp. 4) testing retroactive avoidance. PLOS One pdf


Josephson & Pallikari-Viras (1991). Biological utilisation of quantum nonlocality. Foundations of Physics. pdf

May et al (1995). Decision augmentation theory: Towards a model of anomalous mental phenomena. Journal of Parapsychology. pdf

Houtkooper (2002). Arguing for an observational theory of paranormal phenomena. Journal of Parapsychologypdf

Bierman (2003). Does consciousness collapse the wave-packet? Mind and Matterpdf

Dunne & Jahn (2005). Consciousness, information, and living systems. Cellular and Molecular Biologypdf

Henry (2005). The mental universe. Nature. pdf

Hiley & Pylkkanen (2005). Can mind affect matter via active information? Mind & Matterpdf

Lucadou et al (2007). Synchronistic phenomena as entanglement correlations in generalized quantum theory. Journal of Consciousness Studiespdf

Rietdijk (2007). Four-dimensional physics, nonlocal coherence, and paranormal phenomena. Physics Essayspdf

Bierman (2010). Consciousness induced restoration of time symmetry (CIRTS ): A psychophysical theoretical perspective. Journal of Parapsychology pdf

Tressoldi et al (2010). Extrasensory perception and quantum models of cognition. Neuroquantologypdf

Tressoldi (2012). Replication unreliability in psychology: elusive phenomena or “elusive” statistical power? Frontiers in Psychologypdf

Kauffman & Radin (2021). Is brain-mind quantum? A theory and supporting evidence. arXivpdf

Mind-matter interaction

Studies of historical interest

Crookes (1874). Researches in the phenomena of spiritualism. The Quarterly Journal of Sciencepdf

Crookes (1874). Notes of séances with DDH (physical medium Daniel D. Home). pdf

Medhurst & Goldney (1964). William Crookes and the physical phenomena of mediumship. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Researchpdf

Merrifield (1885/1971). Merrifield’s report (on D. D. Home). Journal of the Society for Psychical Researchpdf

Zorab (1971).  Were D. D. Home’s ‘spirit hands” ever fraudulently produced? Journal of the Society for Psychical Researchpdf

Experimental studies and meta-analyses

Jahn (1982). The persistent paradox of psychic phenomena: An engineering perspective. Proceedings of the IEEE.  pdf

Schmidt (1987). The strange properties of psychokinesis. Journal of Scientific Explorationpdf

Schmidt (1990). Correlation between mental processes and external random events. Journal of Scientific Exploration pdf

Radin & Nelson (1989). Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems. Foundations of Physicspdf

Radin & Ferrari (1991). Effects of consciousness on the fall of dice: A meta-analysis.. Journal of Scientific Exploration pdf

Jahn et al (1997). Correlations of random binary sequences with pre-stated operator intention: A review of a 12-year program. Journal of Scientific Exploration pdf

Freedman et al (2003). Effects of frontal lobe lesions on intentionality and random physical phenomena. Journal of Scientific Explorationpdf

Bosch et al (2006).  Examining psychokinesis: The interaction of human intention with random number generators. Psychological Bulletinpdf

Radin et al (2006). Reexamining psychokinesis. Psychological Bulletin pdf

Radin et al (2006). Assessing the evidence for mind-matter interaction effects. Journal of Scientific Exploration.  pdf

Radin (2006). Experiments testing models of mind-matter interaction. Journal of Scientific Exploration. pdf

Radin. (2008). Testing nonlocal observation as a source of intuitive knowledge. Explore.  pdf

Radin et al (2012). Consciousness and the double-slit interference pattern: Six experiments. Physics Essayspdf

Radin et al (2021). Psychophysical interactions with a double-slit interference pattern: Exploratory evidence of a causal influence. Physics Essays  pdf 

Shiah & Radin (2013). A randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea. Explorepdf

Shiah et al (2017). Effects of intentionally treated water on growth of Arabidopsis Thaliana seeds with cryptochrome mutations. Explorepdf

Freedman et al (2018). Mind-matter interactions and the frontal lobes of the brain: A novel neurobiological model of psi inhibition. Explorepdf

Schwartz (2019). Water, wine and the sacred, an anthropological view of substances altered by intentioned awareness, including objective and aesthetic effects.. Explorepdf

Walach et al. (2020). Evidence for anomalistic correlations between human behavior and a random event generator: Result of an independent replication of a micro-PK experiment. Psychology of Consciousnesspdf

Field Consciousness Studies

Nelson et al (2002). Correlations of continuous random data with major world events. Foundations of Physics Letterspdf

Crawford et al (2003). Alterations in random event measures associated with a healing practice. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicinepdf

Nelson & Bancel (2011). Effects of mass consciousness: Changes in random data during global events. Explorepdf

Bancel (2017). Searching for global consciousness: A seventeen year exploration. Explorepdf  supplementary

Nelson (2017). Weighting the parameters, a response to Bancel's "Searching for global consciousness: A seventeen year exploration". Explorepdf

Holmberg, U. (2020). Stock returns and the mind. Journal of Consciousness Studiespdf

Recommended sources

Professional Societies

Society for Psychical Research 

     SPR's Psi Encyclopedia

     SPR's Journal

Parapsychological Association

Society for Scientific Exploration

     SSE's Journal

Academic and Private Research Institutes

Institute of Noetic Sciences (USA)

Rhine Research Center (USA)

     Duke University Parapsychology Laboratory records 1893-1984

Parapsychology Foundation (USA)

International Metapsychic Institute (France)

Division of Perceptual Studies, University of Virginia (USA)

Institute for Frontier Areas of Psychology and Mental Health (Germany)

Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (USA)

Laboratories for Fundamental Research (USA)

Koestler Parapsychology Unit, University of Edinburgh (Scotland UK)

Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Lund University (Sweden)

Psychical Research Foundation (USA)

   PRF Articles


Bial Foundation (Portugal)

Bigelow Institute for Consciousness Studies (USA)

Active Researcher Sites

Charles Tart's website

Stanley Krippner's articles

Patrizio Tressoldi's website

Michael Nahm's website

Andreas Sommer's website

Markus Maier's website

Chris Roe's website

Stephan Schwartz's articles or alternative site 

James Spottiswoode's articles

Carlos Alvarado and Nancy Zingrone's website

Garret Moddel's University of Colorado "psiphen" website

Deceased Researcher Sites

William Braud's articles

Helmut Schmidt's bibliography

selected articles

Suitbert Ertel's articles

Recommended books


Besides my own books (shameless plug), this is my minimal recommended reading list for those serious about getting up to speed on the psi literature. A good starter library might consist of about 50 titles. A comprehensive library would easily run over 1,000 volumes. The links point to Amazon out of convenience, but these books are available wherever books are sold. If you don't see a book that ought to be here, let me know.

Scholarly works

Irreducible Mind: Toward a Psychology for the 21st Century link

Beyond Physicalism: Toward Reconciliation of Science and Spirituality link

First Sight: ESP and Parapsychology in Everyday Life link

Definitive series on the US government's classified program of psychic espionage 

The Star Gate Archives: Reports of the United States Government Sponsored Psi Program, 1972-1995. Volumes 1 - 4 link

Excellent, multidisciplinary anthology on the state of the art of psi research (as of 2015)

Parapsychology: A Handbook for the 21st Century. link

Popular books

Is There An Afterlife?: A Comprehensive Overview of the Evidence link

Life Before Life: Children's Memories of Previous Lives link

A Short History of (Nearly) Everything Paranormal: Our Secret Powers: Telepathy, Clairvoyance and Precognition link

The Essential Guide to Remote Viewing: The Secret Military Remote Perception Skill Anyone Can Learn link

Limitless Mind: A Guide to Remote Viewing and Transformation of Consciousness. link

The Flip: Epiphanies of Mind and the Future of Knowledge link

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